Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2-minute period that were coded as containing a minumum of one kind of sexual intercourse monitored in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, along with other sexual behavior 2 had been additionally examined when it comes to existence of same-sex behavior that is sexual. With this product, programmers used a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted when you look at the interval took place between a couple of this sex that is same.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each 2-minute period that was indeed coded as containing a minumum of one example of talk through the intimate talk groups utilized in the primary coding task ( ag e.g., feedback about own/others’ sexual actions or passions, speak about intercourse which have already occurred, speak about sex crimes) has also been coded for whether some of the sexual talk associated with nonheterosexuals. Because of this product, programmers once once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the talk that is sexual the intimate passions or concerns of nonheterosexual individuals. Frequently, such reviews pertaining to gays and lesbians, although sporadically these people were related to bisexuals.

Sexual feedback involving homosexual and references that are lesbian have purposes except that portraying the intimate issues of the teams such as for example usage by straight characters to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even to tease another individual. Hence, criteria had been founded to make sure that this product had been coded “yes” for a period only if speak about intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual dilemmas of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the commentary had been coded inside their appropriate talk that is sexual but did not count toward a yes response with this item. For instance, if a male character had been to guard his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it isn’t like i am homosexual; i simply have not met the proper girl!” such a comment could have been coded in the primary coding task into the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate passions or actions” because he produced mention of the their intimate curiosity about ladies, nevertheless the free sex cam mention of maybe maybe not being homosexual will never have counted toward a confident a reaction to the product on speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems.

System Coding

Coder training

When it comes to very first 12 months’s content analysis, 16 pupils (10 females, 6 men) from regional universities served as programmers; into the 2nd year, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) who have been either present university students or current graduates carried out the information coding. Six for the programmers labored on both content analyses. The stages of coder training included orientation to your coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe perhaps perhaps not into the test with supervisors, and lastly specific coding of training programs where coders evaluated shows separately after which talked about the outcomes period by period in regular group meetings. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the specific training stage of training to ascertain whenever programmers could continue because of the coding task that is actual. The dependability analyses presented below, nevertheless, connect with assessments of coder contract obtained through the coding of the subset of programs into the scheduled system examples.

Coding procedures

Programmers watched sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the existence or lack of intimate behavior and speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals. Because the coding had been restricted to system content and excluded commercials along with other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers in addition to counters regarding the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute periods of program time. Programmers recorded information on scannable types for every single interval while they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in previous intervals to know the information in later people), these were maybe maybe maybe not permitted to rule backwards (for example., use information learned later in a scheduled system to return and alter the coding in a youthful period). All opening credits and the ones shutting credits followed by content from the present episode (i.e., one last scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

Roughly 11 to 12per cent for the shows within the system examples (n = 157 and n = 154 for the very very first and content that is second, correspondingly) were arbitrarily assigned to two programmers for separate coding and dependability evaluation. The coders then met to resolve any discrepancies in the two sets of ratings and produce a final set of ratings for the show that was used in data analyses of the entire program sample after both coders’ data had been recorded and analyzed for reliability purposes. Assessment of dependability had been carried out for a basis that is ongoing the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the whole system test every year. Programs out of each and every genre and each community kind had been contained in the dependability analyses. Genres were represented within the double-coded examples in approximate percentage for their representation within the program that is overall.

For purposes of dependability evaluation, how many 2-minute periods coded for every adjustable regarding intimate minorities had been summed throughout the periods within an episode to measure the regularity with which same-sex intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas happened within each system episode. This summing led to converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) during the 2-minute-interval level into regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of periods by which same-sex intimate behavior took place the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation of this percentage of variance when you look at the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information for instance the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized while the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably exceeded this criterion. The ICC for same-sex intimate behavior had been .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

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